Selected Bibliography of Readings on Abandoned Mines and Gates PDF Print
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Altenbach,J. S. 1998. Abandoned mines as bat habitat. Cultural Resources Management 7:46–48. Available at http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/21-7/21-7-18.pdf


Altenbach, J. S., and H. E. Milford. 1995. Evaluation and management of bats in abandoned mines in the Southwest. Pp. 326–330, in 1993 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (D. Pate, ed.). American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky. 364 pp.


Altenbach, J. S., and R. E. Sherwin. 2002. Importance of Protecting Mines. Pp. 7–17, in Bat gate design: A technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories and D. Throgmorton, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Altenbach, J. S., R. E. Sherwin, and P. E. Brown. 2000. Pre-mine closure bat survey and inventory techniques. Pp. 115–126, in Bat conservation and mining: a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories and D. Throgmorton, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 374 pp.


Amodt, L. A. 1996. Vandalism and success of closures in Utah. Pp. 79–89, in Proceedings of the 18th Abandoned Mine Land Conference (J. Koerth, ed.). The Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs, Kalispell, Montana. 388 pp.


Anon. 1985. Volunteers protect Tennessee bats. American Caves 1(2):8–9.


Anon. 1993. James Cave receives new gates for bats. Bats 11(3):4.


Anon. 1993. BCI helps protect Pennsylvania mine for bats. Bats 11(4):16–17.


Anon. 1995. New ACCA gates protect Kentucky and Tennessee caves. American Caves 8(1):10–11.


Anon. 1997. Gates, gates, and more gates! American Caves 10(1):6–7.


Bobo, K., and J. Greene. 2000. The gating of Wolf River Cave. NSS News 58(10):283, 286, 294.


Brady, J. T. 1985. Cave management for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) and gray bat (Myotis grisescens). Pp. 86–95, in 1982 Cave Management Symposia Proceedings (H. Thornton and J. Thornton, eds.). American Cave Conservation Association, Richmond, Virginia. 122 pp.


Brown, C. B. 1996. Bat habitat in caves: What are the caver’s responsibilities? NSS News 54(2–3):52–53.


Brown, P. E. 1997. Renewed mining and reclamation: Impacts on bats and potential mitigation. Pp. 196–201, in Vision 2000: An environmental commitment (J. E. Brandt, ed.). Proceedings of the 14th annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Railroad Commission of Texas, Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Austin, Texas. 787 pp.


Brown, P. E., and R. D. Berry. 2004. Bio-assessment: determining the suitability of mines and caves for bats. Pp. 55–61, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Brown, P. E., J. S. Altenbach, and R. E. Sherwin. 2000. Evicting bats when gates won’t work: unstable mines and renewed mining. Pp. 187–192, in Bat Conservation and Mining: A Technical Interactive Forum (K. C. Vories and D. Throgmorton, eds.). U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Bat Conservation International, Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, St. Louis, Missouri. 294 pp.


Bucknam, D. 2004. Closure repair and maintenance. Pp. 359–361, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Burghardt, J. E. 1994. Polyurethane foam applications in the closure of abandoned mine openings. Unpublished report to USDI National Park Service, Geologic Resources Division, Denver, Colorado, 7 pp. Available at http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/aml/amlreports/puf.pdf


Burghardt, J. E. 1997. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in National Park System units. Pp. 184–194, in Proceedings of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation (J. E. Brandt, ed.). American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Lexington, Kentucky.


Burghardt, J. E. 2003. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in the National Park system. Presented at 2003 Arid Southwest Lands Habitat Restoration Conference, Palm Springs, California. 34 pp. Full paper available at http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/aml/amlreports/batgate9102003_screen.pdf


Burghardt, J. E. 1997. Safe conduct of bat surveys in abandoned underground mines. Pp. 44–45, in Natural Resource Year in Review – 1997 (J. Seleck, ed.). National Park Service, Lakewood, Colorado. 63 pp.


Burghardt, J. E. 2004. Abandoned and inactive mine safety — underground mine hazards. Pp. 273–299, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Butchkoski, C. M. 2010. Pennsylvania bat gating efforts. Pp. 145–149, in Protecting Threatened Bats at Coal Mines, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, A. H. Caswell, and T. M. Price, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 273 pp.


Carter, T. C., and B. J. Steffen. 2010. Converting abandoned mines to suitable hibernacula for endangered Indiana bats. Pp. 205–213, in Protecting Threatened Bats at Coal Mines, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, A. H. Caswell, and T. M. Price, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 273 pp.


Colburn, M. L. 2005. Paleontological inventory project: vertebrate remains found

in select passages and caves in Mammoth Cave National Park. Unpublished report (Technical Report No. 2005-1199-007) to USDI National Park Service. Illinois State Museum Landscape History Program, Springfield, Illinois. 318 pp.


Corcoran, J. C. 2009. Assessing the stability and long-term viability of abandoned mines for use by bats. Masters Thesis, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 71 pp.


Currie, R. R. 2002. Response to gates at hibernacula. Pp. 86–99, in The Indiana Bat: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species (A. Kurta and J. Kennedy, eds.). Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. 265 pp.


Dalton, D. 2004. Horizontal bar gates — an overview. Pp. 153–157, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Dansby, L. 1995. Informed decision making for bat-gating abandoned mines. Pp. 331–336, in 1993 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (D. Pate, ed.). American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky. 364 pp.


Ducummon, S. L. 1999. The North American Bats and Mines Project — a cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation. Pp. 10–21, in Mine Decommissioning, Proceedings of the 23rd annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium (C. Howell, ed.). The British Columbia Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation, Kamloops, British Columbia. 254 pp.


Dutko, R. 1994. Protected at last, the Hibernia Mine. Bats 12(3):3–5.


Elliott, W. R. 1996. The evolution of cave gating. American Caves 9(2):9–15.


Elliott, W. R. 2001. Project reports 2000: Missouri caves. American Caves 14(3):6–9.


Elliott, W. R. 2006. Cave Gating Criteria. Unpublished document for the Missouri Department of Conservation. 7 pp. Available at http://www.utexas.edu/tmm/sponsored_sites/biospeleology/pdf/index.htm


Elliott, W. R., and R. L. Clawson. 2001. Temperature data logging in Missouri bat caves. Pp. 52–57, in 1999 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). Southeastern Cave Conservancy, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 221 pp.


Fant, J., J. Kennedy, R. Powers, Jr., and W. Elliott. 2009. Agency guide to cave and mine gating. American Cave Conservation Association, Bat Conservation International, and Missouri Department of Conservation. 16 pp.


Fletcher, M. R. 1985. Endangered bat protection at Buffalo National River, Arkansas. Pp. 147–150, in 1984 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (J. E. Vandyke, ed.). Missouri Speleology 25(1–4):147–150.


Forbis, S., V. Haskins, and D. G. Foster. 1996. Protecting the ancient history of Crumps Cave. Pp. 88–92, in 1995 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). Indiana Karst Conservancy, Indianapolis, Indiana. 318 pp.


Gobla, M. 1994. Mine Closure Guidelines. Technology News 435. U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. 24 pp.


Grandison, K. W., J. M. Diamond, G. F. Diamond, V. J. Tyler, and M. R. Mesch. 2000. Monitoring and evaluating results of bat protection efforts. Bat Conservation and Mining, a Technical Interactive Forum. USDI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois. Available at https://fs.ogm.utah.gov/pub/mines/AMR_Related/NAAMLP/BioVeg/Grandiso.pdf


Grol, B. P. F. E., and A. M. Voûte. 2010. Hibernating bats in the Schenkgroeve, an artificial limestone cave in south Limburg, the Netherlands. Lutra 53(1):29–46.


Grol, B. P. F. E., A. M. Voûte, and B. Verboom.  2011.  The influence of a Christmas market on hibernating bats in a man-made limestone cave.  Lutra 54(2):69–88.

Hall, B. 2004. Personnel and qualifications. Pp. 323–329, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). USDI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois. 452 pp.


Hathorn J., and J. Thornton. 1987. The common sense guide to cave gates. ACCA Cave Management Series 1(3):23–45. American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky.


Hathorn, J., and J. Thornton. 1993. Cave gates: design and construction considerations. Pp. 359–363, in 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (D. L. Foster, D. G. Foster, M. N. Snow, and R. K. Snow, eds.). American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky. 405 pp.


Henry, S. G. 2004. Developing a project strategy. Pp. 51–54, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Herder, M. [J.] 2000. Monitoring the effectiveness of bat compatible mine gates. Resource Notes 18. National Applied Resource Sciences Center, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado. Available at http://www.blm.gov/nstc/resourcenotes/respdf/RN18.pdf


Herder, M. J. 2004. Monitoring the effectiveness of bat compatible mine gates. Pp. 339–351, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Hopper, H. L. 1999. Cave gating: three success stories. American Caves 12(3):6–9.


Hunt, G., and R. R. Stitt. 1981. Cave Gating, 2nd edition. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama. 60 pp.


Ingersoll, T. E., K. W. Navo, and P. de Valpine. 2010. Microclimate preferences during swarming and hibernation in the Townsend's big-eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii. Journal of Mammalogy 91(5):1242–1250.


Johnson, J. B., J. W. Edwards, and P. B. Wood. 2005. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 12(2):233–240.


Johnson, J. B., P. B. Wood, and J. W. Edwards. 2006. Are external mine entrance characteristics related to bat use? Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(5):1368–1375.

 

Jonasson, K. A., and C. K. R. Willis.  2012.  Hibernation energetics of free-ranging little brown bats.  The Journal of Experimental Biology 215:2141–2149.


Kennedy, J. 2004a. Restoration, not just conservation, of bat caves — need, methods, and case study of a Myotis sodalis hibernaculum. Pp. 93–100, in 2003 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Steering Committee, Gainesville, Florida. 117 pp.


Kennedy, J. 2004b. Training opportunities for cave and mine gaters. Pp. 89–93, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Kennedy, J. 2004c. Pre- and post-gate microclimate monitoring. Pp. 353–357, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Kennedy, J. 2006. On cave gates. Pp. 147–165, in Cave Conservation and Restoration (V. Hildreth-Werker and J. C. Werker, eds.). National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama. 614 pp.


Kennedy, J. 2012. Comparison of cave gate materials. Pp. 130–135, in 2011 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (V. Stratford, ed.). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Midway, UT. 177 pp.


Kennedy, J., and C. Whitney. 2004. Ecological restoration at Saltpetre Cave, Carter Caves State Resort Park, Carter County, Kentucky. Kentucky Karst (Kentucky Speleological Survey) 2(1):6–9.


King, R.H. 2005. Microclimate effects from closing abandoned mines with culvert bat gates. Technical Note 416. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office, Denver, Colorado. BLM/CO/ST-04/006+REV05. 13pp.


Kingsley, K. K., T. R. Strong, and T. K. Snow. 2001. Caves and mine adits as wildlife resources in the Sonoran Desert region. Pp. 138–140, in 2001 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). USDA Forest Service, Coronado National Forest, Tucson, Arizona. 194 pp.


Klys, G., and B. W. Woloszyn. 2010. Ecological aspects of bat hibernacula in temperate climate zone of central Europe. Travaux du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Grigore Antipa 53:489–497.


Kretzmann, J. A. 2004a. Bat cupola design considerations. Pp. 207–222, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Kretzmann, J. A. 2004b. Cable nets for bat habitat preservation. Pp. 103–113, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Kurta, A. 2002. Bats and mines: further exploration and post-gating monitoring. Unpublished report to Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 19 pp.


Langdon, J. A. 2004. Culvert closure design and construction. Pp. 123–133, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Ludlow, M. E., and J. A. Gore. 2000. Effects of a cave gate on emergence patterns of colonial bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1):191–196.


MacGregor, J. 1993. Responses of winter populations of the federal endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) to cave gating in Kentucky. Pp. 364–370, in 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (D. L. Foster, D. G. Foster, M. N. Snow, and R. K. Snow, eds.). American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky. 405 pp.


Martin, K. W., W. L. Puckette, S. L. Hensley, and D. M. Leslie, Jr. 2000. Internal cave gating as a means of protecting cave-dwelling bat populations in eastern Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 80:133–137.


Martin, K. W., D. M. Leslie, Jr., M. E. Payton, W. L. Puckette, and S. L. Hensley. 2003. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens). Acta Chiropterologica 5(1):143–150.


Martin, K. W., D. M. Leslie, Jr., M. E. Payton, W. L. Puckette, and S. L. Hensley. 2006. Impacts of passage manipulation on cave climate: conservation implications for cave-dwelling bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(1):137–143.


Mesch, M., and B. Lengas. 1996. Identification and protection of bat habitat at a Utah abandoned mine land site, the Silver Reef Mining District. Pp. 57–65, in Proceedings of the 18th Abandoned Mine Land Conference (J. Koerth, ed.). The Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs, Kalispell, Montana. 388 pp.


Mitchell-Jones, T., Z. Bihari, M. Masing, and L. Rodrigues.  2010.  Protecting and managing underground sites for bats.  Eurobats publication series 2 (3rd ed.).  Eurobats, Bonn, Germany.  40 pp.

Murariu, D., and V. Gheorghiu. 2010. Sura Mare Cave (Romania), the most important known hibernating roost for Pipistrellus pygmaeus Leach, 1825 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Travaux du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Grigore Antipa 53:329–338.


Murphy, M. 1993. Restoring Coach Cave. Bats 11(3):3–5.


Navo, K. W. 2001. The survey and evaluation of abandoned mines for bat roosts in the West: guidelines for natural resource managers. Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Series 4, Number 2. Denver, Colorado. 12 pp.


Nieland, J. 1996. Washington’s Christmas Tree Cave gated — Bats protected. American Caves 9(2):16–17.


Nieland, J. 2004a. Bat gate construction, on-site coordination, and work. Pp. 301–322, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Nieland, J. 2004b. Policies, management, and monitoring — protection of habitat using bat gates. Pp. 363–375, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Olson, R. 1996. This old cave — The ecological restoration of the Historic Entrance ecotone of Mammoth Cave, and mitigation of visitor impact. Pp. 87–95, in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Mammoth Cave Science Conference. National Park Service and Cave Research Foundation, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.


Olson, R. 2004. Performing a needs assessment for potentially gating a cave or mine. Pp. 45–50, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.

 

Perry, R. W.  2013.  A review of factors affecting cave climates for hibernating bats in temperate North America.  Environmental Review 21:28–39.  http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1139/er-2012-0042


Powers, R. D., Jr. 1985. General cave gate considerations. Pp. 77–79, in 1982 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (H. Thornton and J. Thornton, eds.). American Cave Conservation Association, Richmond, Virginia. 122 pp.


Powers, R. D., Jr. 1993. Design improvements for gating bat caves. Pp. 356–358, in 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (D. L. Foster, D. G. Foster, M. N. Snow, and R. K. Snow, eds.). American Cave Conservation Association, Horse Cave, Kentucky. 405 pp.


Powers, R. D., Jr. 1996. A study of acoustical confusion. Pp. 274–276, in 1995 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). Indiana Karst Conservancy, Indianapolis, Indiana. 318 pp.


Powers, R. D., Jr. 2004. The angle iron bat gate. Pp. 159–167, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Powers, R. D., Jr., and J. Kennedy. 2005. Bat gates for large colonies and maternity sites. P. 146, in 2005 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Steering Committee, Huntsville, Alabama. 261 pp.


Priscu, C., C-M. Aldea, W. K. Wong, D. Dunham, and B. Lumley. 2010. Minimizing environmental impacts in rehabilitating small abandoned mine sites in Manitoba. British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium 2010. 14 pp. Available at https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/30338/09%20Priscu.pdf?sequence=1


Pugh, M., and J. D. Altringham. 2005. The effect of gates on cave entry by swarming bats. Acta Chiropterologica 7(2):293–299.

Quinn, M., and J. Petterson. 1997. A grand effort in the Grand Canyon. Bats 15(3):4–7.

Raesly, R. L., and J. E. Gates. 1986. Winter habitat selection by north temperate cave bats. American Midland Naturalist 118(1):15–31.

Richter, A. R., S. R. Humphrey, J. B. Cope, and V. Brack, Jr. 1993. Modified cave entrances: thermal effect on body mass and resulting decline of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis). Conservation Biology 7(2):407–415.


Roebuck, B. E., A. Vakili, and L. Roebuck. 2001. Cave gate airflow disturbance: a qualitative study. Pp. 169–175, in 1999 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Proceedings (G. T. Rea, ed.). Southeastern Cave Conservancy, Chattanooga, Tennessee. 221 pp.


Roebuck, L. 2000. Gating in Tennessee: a plethora of summer bat protection projects. American Caves 14(1):6–8.


Sasse, D. B. 2004. Protecting cave bat populations with flyover barriers. Pp. 135–139, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Sherfy, F., and L. Malin. 2004. Bat gates and NEPA compliance. Pp. 71–78, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Sherwin, R. E., J. S. Altenbach, and S. Haymond. 2004. The responses of bats to gates. Pp. 333–338, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Sherwin, R. E., J. S. Altenbach, and D. L. Waldien. 2009. Managing Abandoned Mines for Bats. Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. 103 pp.


Spanjer, G. R. 2004. How do bats react to cave gates? NSS News 62(10):285.


Spanjer, G. R. 2004. Behavioral responses of bats to cave and mine gates. MS Thesis, York University, Toronto, Ontario. 89 pp.


Steffen, B. J. 2007. Effects of mine characteristics on hibernacula selection by bats in southern Illinois. Masters Thesis, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 167 pp.


Stihler, C. W. 2000. Gates constructed to protect bats in West Virginia caves. American Caves 13(2):15–16.


Thomson, B. 2002. Australian handbook for the conservation of bats in mines and artificial cave-bat habitats. Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research, Melbourne, Australia. 66 pp. Available at http://www.acmer.uq.edu.au/publications/attachments/BatReportAmeef15.pdf


Toomey, R. S. III, M. L. Coburn, and R. A. Olson. 2002. Paleontological evaluation of past use of caves by the Indiana bat: a significant tool for restoration of hibernacula. Pp. 79–85, in The Indiana Bat: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species (A. Kurta and J. Kennedy, eds.). Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. 265 pp.


Tuttle, M. D. 1977. Gating as a means of protecting cave-dwelling bats. Pp. 77–82, in 1976 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (T. Aley and D. Rhodes, eds.). Speleobooks, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 112 pp.


Tuttle, M. D., and D. E. Stevenson. 1978. Variation in the cave environment and its biological implications. Pp. 108–121, in 1977 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings (R. Zuber, J. Chester, S. Gilbert, and D. Rhodes, eds.). Adobe Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 141 pp.


Tuttle, M. D. 1985. Joint effort saves vital bat cave. Bats 2(4):3–4.


Tuttle, M. D. 1997. A Mammoth discovery. Bats 15(4):3–5.


Tuttle, M. D., and D. A. R. Taylor. 1998. Bats and Mines (revised edition). Bat Conservation International, Resource Publication 3, Austin, Texas. 50 pp.


Tuttle, M. D. 2000. Where the bats are, Part III: caves, cliffs, and rock crevices. Bats 18(1):6–11.


Tuttle, M. D., and J. Kennedy. 2002. Thermal requirements during hibernation. Pp. 68–78, in The Indiana Bat: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species (A. Kurta and J. Kennedy, eds.). Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. 265 pp.


Tuttle, M. D. 2003. Estimating population sizes of hibernating bats in caves and mines. Pp. 31–39, in Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and Territories, problems and prospects (T. J. O’Shea and M. A. Bogen, eds.). U. S. Geological Survey Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR–2003-0003. 282 pp.


Twente, J. W., Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4):706–732.


Vittetoe, M. 2002. Rectangular tube gating. Pp. 169–187, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Werker, J. C. 2004. Characteristics of materials used in cave and mine gates. Pp. 223–226, in Bat Gate Design, a technical interactive forum (K. C. Vories, D. Throgmorton, and A. Harrington, eds.). U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois, and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois. 452 pp.


Werker, J. C. 2006. Materials considerations for cave installations. Pp. 167–174, in Cave Conservation and Restoration (V. Hildreth-Werker and J. C. Werker, eds.). National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama. 614 pp.


White, D. H., and J. T. Seginak. 1987. Cave gate designs for use in protecting endangered bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15:445–449.


Wilhide, J. D., and T. V. Ash. 2002. A landowner's guide to bats and cave gates. Arkansas Field Office, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Conway, Arkansas. 36 pp.